Les écrans, l’inactivité et le manque de sommeil croissant chez les enfants

Une vague de sommeil frappe les enfants canadiens. Trop de temps passé devant des écrans et trop peu d’activité physique créent un cercle vicieux alarmant : selon une nouvelle recherche, le manque de sommeil qui en découle pourrait constituer un troisième facteur de risque pour la santé des jeunes Canadiens.

Le Bulletin 2016 de Participaction, sur l’activité physique des enfants et des jeunes, traite des difficultés associées aux démarches pour faire bouger les enfants. Le bulletin s’intéresse à diverses catégories – comme le jeu actif, les habiletés motrices et les comportements sédentaires – en attribuant une cote alphabétique à chacune.

Cette année, le Bulletin considère une toute nouvelle catégorie, celle du sommeil, et les résultats de recherche ont de quoi procurer de l’insomnie aux parents.

En résumé, les enfants canadiens dorment moins, et la qualité de leur sommeil ne cesse de se détériorer. Cela signifie qu’ils deviennent plus sédentaires et moins actifs chaque jour parce qu’ils sont fatigués. Et parce qu’à la fin de la journée, ils ont été plus sédentaires et moins actifs, les enfants dorment moins bien, et le cycle se répète.

« Le manque de sommeil devient problématique pour les jeunes Canadiens », soutient le Dr Mark Tremblay, conseiller scientifique en chef du Bulletin de Participaction. Également directeur de l’Institut de recherche de l’Hôpital pour enfants de l’est de l’Ontario, dont la recherche porte sur les saines habitudes de vie et l’obésité, le Dr Tremblay croit qu’il est temps d’adopter une approche qui cible la journée complète. « De nombreux enfants sont trop fatigués pour faire suffisamment d’activité physique durant la journée, et pas assez actifs pour être fatigués le soir : c’est un cercle vicieux. »

Le nouveau Bulletin souligne que les enfants et les jeunes ont besoin de leur dose quotidienne d’activité intense, de marche, de sommeil et de détente. À l’heure actuelle, seulement 9 % des enfants compilent suffisamment de temps d’activité physique modérée à intense chaque jour, et 24 % seulement respectent la limite quotidienne recommandée de deux heures devant un écran.

Leur sommeil en souffre de deux façons. Au cours des dernières décennies, les jeunes Canadiens ont vu la durée de leur sommeil diminuer en moyenne de 30 à 60 minutes par nuit. Actuellement, 31 % des enfants d’âge scolaire et 26 % des adolescents manquent de sommeil.

En plus d’influencer très négativement le taux d’activité physique, le manque de sommeil entraîne d’autres problèmes de santé.

Le déficit de sommeil est lié à l’hyperactivité, à de mauvais résultats aux tests de QI, en plus de produire des changements hormonaux indésirables. Certains de ces changements sont associés à un risque accru d’obésité, de diabète et d’hypertension.

En revanche, l’activité physique pratiquée régulièrement est une stratégie éprouvée pour mieux dormir. Selon le Bulletin de 2016, les élèves de cinquième année plus actifs physiquement sont moins susceptibles de s’endormir durant le jour. De même, les élèves de niveau secondaire qui pratiquent au moins 60 minutes d’activité physique par jour sont 41 % plus susceptibles de dormir suffisamment que leurs camarades plus sédentaires.

Si votre enfant se plaint régulièrement de mal dormir, il serait peut-être sage de revoir vos habitudes familiales en matière d’activité physique et de temps passé devant les écrans. Pour se développer sainement, tous les enfants ont besoin de bien dormir, et la nouvelle pénurie de sommeil pourrait avoir des conséquences aussi graves que la crise de sédentarité que nous connaissons.

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class="gfield_required"><span class="gfield_required gfield_required_asterisk">*</span></span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_date'> <input name='input_1' id='input_10_1' type='text' value='' class='datepicker mdy datepicker_no_icon gdatepicker-no-icon' placeholder='mm/jj/aaaa' aria-describedby="input_10_1_date_format" aria-invalid="false" aria-required="true"/> <span id='input_10_1_date_format' class='screen-reader-text'>MM slash JJ slash AAAA</span> </div> <input type='hidden' id='gforms_calendar_icon_input_10_1' class='gform_hidden' value='https://activeforlife.com/content/plugins/gravityforms/images/datepicker/datepicker.svg'/></div><div id="field_10_13" class="gfield gfield--width-full gfield_html gfield_html_formatted gfield_no_follows_desc field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><p>Only one kid per email address.</p> <p>Active Start is for children 4 and younger.</p></div><div id="field_10_4" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_4' >Age When Submitted</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_4' id='input_10_4' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_5" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_5' >1st Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_10_5' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_6" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_6' >2nd Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_6' id='input_10_6' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_7" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_7' >3rd Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_7' id='input_10_7' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_8" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_8' >4th Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_8' id='input_10_8' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_9" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_9' >5th Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_9' id='input_10_9' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div></div></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_10' class='gform_button button' value='Submit' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_10"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_10"]=true; ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_10"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_10"]=true; 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