Périodes critiques de développement : Ce qu’il faut savoir

En tant que parents, nous voyons nos tout-petits grandir et passer d’un jalon à l’autre : ramper, marcher, lancer, attraper, sauter…   

On sait que ces habiletés motrices (en anglais) surviennent quand l’enfant a atteint un stade de développement suffisant. Il faut d’abord que le système nerveux et les muscles développent la coordination et la force nécessaires. C’est facile à comprendre.

En revanche, le concept – tout aussi important – de périodes critiques de développement est souvent mal compris.  

Que sont les périodes critiques?  

Il s’agit de périodes où les capacités physiques et cognitives se développent très rapidement. Par exemple, l’entraînement de la parole et de la vision dans la petite enfance produit des résultats rapides et significatifs.  

Les études montrent qu’il existe des périodes critiques pour toutes sortes de capacités physiques. Les meilleurs exemples sont l’endurance et la force. Appliqué au bon moment, le bon stimulus d’entraînement produit des résultats supérieurs. Appliqué trop tôt, il est beaucoup moins efficace.  

Endurance

La puberté est le moment idéal pour développer la capacité pulmonaire et aérobie (endurance). À cause des changements hormonaux et des poussées de croissance, les poumons s’adaptent plus facilement à l’entraînement. Les courses de longue distance font des merveilles pour l’endurance des ados. 

En revanche, des études montrent que les enfants de neuf ans n’en tirent pratiquement aucun bénéfice (en anglais), parce qu’ils ne sont pas au bon stade de développement. 

Force

Le développement de la force suit une trajectoire similaire. Les filles et les garçons peuvent gagner énormément en force à la puberté (en anglais). Les enfants plus jeunes peuvent travailler leur force (en anglais), mais il faut qu’il soient supervisés par un adulte et suivent un plan d’entraînement précis et raisonnable.

Avant l’adolescence, le jeu actif (grimper aux arbres, se balancer sur la cage à singes, danser, faire du sport, etc.) suffit à développer la force nécessaire. Pas besoin de soulever des poids ou d’utiliser des machines : une activité physique régulière suffit.  

Respectez les périodes critiques  

Les parents, enseignants et entraîneurs feraient bien de respecter les périodes critiques pour des entraînements plus rentables.

Travailler la force et l’endurance des enfants prépubères, par exemple, est une perte de temps. Concentrez-vous plutôt sur les éléments qui s’entraînent mieux à cet âge, comme l’apprentissage des habiletés et la coordination. 

Tout peut s’entraîner à n’importe quel âge

Les périodes critiques ne sont pas une raison de délaisser une habileté pendant le reste de la croissance. Le corps répond à presque tous les types d’entraînement – dans une certaine mesure – quel que soit âge. Ce qu’il faut retenir, c’est que les périodes critiques sont plus rentables. 

Le bon stimulus d’entraînement au bon moment peut avoir une incidence considérable. Autrement, il aura probablement un effet négligeable. Si l’on ne respecte pas les périodes critiques, on risque de pousser l’enfant au-delà de ses limites de développement, ce qui pourrait entraîner des blessures.

Le développement physique repose largement sur des processus naturels de croissance et de maturation impossibles à contrôler. C’est pourquoi il est essentiel que les parents et les entraîneurs comprennent, respectent et encadrent les périodes critiques de développement.  


En savoir plus sur le développement de l’enfant :

Si vous élevez un enfant athlète, pensez à long terme

Âge relatif et âge de développement : Votre enfant est-il pénalisé?

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class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_4' >Age When Submitted</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_4' id='input_10_4' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_5" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_5' >1st Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_10_5' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_6" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div 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