Terrains de jeu naturels : pourquoi ils sont essentiels pour les jeunes enfants

Le jeu libre à l’extérieur est essentiel au (lien en version anglaise) bien-être physique, émotif, social et cognitif des enfants de tous les âges. Curieux par nature, les enfants consacrent leurs premières années à l’exploration et à la découverte, acquérant les habiletés motrices et le savoir-faire physique qui leur seront utiles toute la vie.

Dans notre monde urbanisé, la vie des enfants est plus structurée et organisée que jamais. Pour les encourager à jouer dehors, les terrains de jeu naturels sont donc parfaits. Offrant divers obstacles, ces espaces donnent aux enfants l’occasion précieuse d’expérimenter, de développer leur littératie physique et de nouer une relation saine et positive avec la nature.

Dans un terrain de jeu naturel, les enfants peuvent monter les collines en rampant et les descendre en roulant, faire des potions magiques avec de la terre et de l’eau, sauter dans des mares, et marcher en équilibre sur des billots et des souches, les bras en croix, en suivant le chef. Les enfants de tous âges et de toutes habiletés peuvent jouer et apprendre ensemble, développant leur esprit de collaboration, et leurs capacités pour le langage et la résolution de problèmes.

On a observé chez les enfants une tendance à jouer plus longtemps dans les terrains de jeu naturels par rapport aux terrains de jeu traditionnels. Ils s’y livrent aussi à plus d’activités aérobiques et de renforcement des os et des muscles.

« Les environnements naturels sont des terrains de jeu dynamiques et accidentés […]. Leur topographie présente des obstacles naturels, comme des pentes et des rochers, avec lesquels les enfants doivent composer. En plus de servir d’abri, la végétation est une invitation à grimper. Quant aux champs, ils sont parfaits pour courir et faire des culbutes. »

-Ingunn Fjørtoft, Early Childhood Education Journal
(lien version anglaise)

Selon les auteurs d’une étude en 2017 (version anglaise), étant donné le nombre d’heures que passent chaque jour les enfants à la garderie, c’est principalement là que bon nombre d’entre eux jouent dehors. Heureusement, de plus en plus de garderies et d’éducateurs préfèrent maintenant les terrains de jeu naturels aux modules préfabriqués qui étaient la norme ces dernières décennies.

Mais les terrains de jeu naturels améliorent-ils vraiment la qualité du jeu des enfants et favorisent-ils davantage leur santé et leur bien-être par rapport aux installations tout droit sorties des catalogues?

Selon les recherches et les éducateurs de la petite enfance, oui!


À lire aussi : Comment aider les enfants à se rapprocher de la nature


Comme prolongement de la classe, les espaces extérieurs naturels stimulent la découverte et l’exploration (Comment le trèfle pousse-t-il? Fait-on des éclaboussures en sautant dans une mare? L’écorce mouillée sent-elle bon?) et incitent les enfants à apprendre par le jeu et à acquérir des habiletés naturellement.

Cette vidéo provenant d’Écosse montre en quoi les terrains de jeu naturels changent le quotidien des éducateurs et des enfants : (version anglaise)

Photo du terrain de jeu : Revelstoke Child Care Society.

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