3 règles pour prévenir les blessures de surentrainement chez les jeunes athlètes

L’entrainement intense et répétitif requis pour le sport à haut niveau entraine des blessures dues au surentrainement quasiment inévitable pour les Olympiens et les athlètes professionnels. Malheureusement, ces blessures graves sont aussi monnaie courante chez les athlètes beaucoup plus jeunes. Il ne devrait pas en être ainsi. Dans un récent article du Globe and Mail, Doctor Dwight Chapin répond à une question posée par la mère d’un joueur de hockey adolescent et explique la cause des blessures dues au surentrainement chez les jeunes athlètes :

Les enfants qui se spécialisent dans un sport à un jeune âge et qui jouent à longueur d’année s’entrainent plus et plus longtemps que ceux qui s’adonnent à plusieurs sports et qui prennent des pauses saisonnières. L’amélioration des compétences est généralement due à la répétition, mais c’est cette répétition qui peut être la cause de la blessure d’un jeune athlète.

Chapin suggère de prévenir les blessures chez vos enfants grâce à 3 simples règles :

1. Encouragez un rétablissement à court terme en demandant aux enfants :

  • de s’étirer avant et après l’effort
  • d’effectuer une période de récupération après l’entrainement
  • de manger dans l’heure qui suit l’entrainement un repas qui contient à la fois des protéines et des glucides
  • de s’octroyer une période de repose après l’entrainement

2. Promouvoir une récupération à long terme en demandant aux enfants :

  • de pratiquer un sport un maximum de 5 fois par semaine
  • de s’arrêter pour une période de 2 à 3 mois afin de guérir le corps et recharger l’esprit

3. Promouvoir le multisports

  • Les enfants qui pratiquent des sports multiples se blessent moins et jouent plus longtemps et à un plus haut niveau que les enfants qui se spécialisent dans un seul sport avant la puberté

Note de l’éditeur : Alors que les athlètes adolescents endurent généralement des entrainements structurés et un entrainement dans un sport 5 fois par semaine, il est important de noter que ce n’est pas le cas des enfants plus jeunes. L’aptitude physique, mentale et émotionnelle d’un enfant de 8 ans par exemple, est très différente de celles d’un jeune de 14 ans. Informez-vous sur le développement à long terme de l’athlète pour en apprendre davantage.

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