Kids and smartphones

Une étude révolutionnaire montre l’effet des écrans sur le cerveau des enfants

Dévoilement des premiers résultats d’une recherche inédite visant à comprendre les effets sur le cerveau de l’exposition aux écrans en bas âge

Le verdict? Le cerveau des enfants exposés vieillit plus et plus rapidement. Selon une étude des National Institutes of Health (NIH) présentée à l’émission 60 Minutes, les examens par IRM des enfants « qui utilisent des téléphones intelligents ou des tablettes ou encore qui jouent à des jeux vidéo plus de sept heures par jour » (Cooper, 2018) révèlent un amincissement prématuré du cortex cérébral. Cela dit, il faudra attendre les résultats de l’étude longitudinale dans dix ans pour savoir si les téléphones intelligents sont réellement à blâmer pour ce vieillissement prématuré du cerveau.

Entre-temps, certains pédiatres comme le Dr Dimitri Christakis cherchent à connaître l’incidence de l’exposition aux écrans chez les jeunes enfants à l’heure actuelle. Dans une entrevue donnée à 60 Minutes, le Dr Christakis a expliqué son étude pilote sur les tout-petits et montré comment certaines applications étaient conçues pour susciter une interaction. Il rappelle toutefois que les enfants « ne sont pas en mesure de transférer les connaissances apprises en deux dimensions à la réalité en trois dimensions » (Cooper, 2018). La relation de cause à effet sur laquelle se fondent les applications pour téléphone intelligent mise sur la vulnérabilité des enfants de moins de deux ans en augmentant leur satisfaction et leur envie de continuer.

De façon semblable, le cerveau des adolescents réagit à la satisfaction immédiate que leur procure leur téléphone intelligent, particulièrement la consultation des médias sociaux, comme le montrent les examens par IRM réalisés dans le cadre de l’étude des NIH. L’imagerie montre que les centres de la récompense du cerveau « sont plus actifs lorsque les jeunes consultent les médias sociaux » (Cooper, 2018) et que l’exposition à un écran stimule la sécrétion de dopamine, une hormone liée au plaisir. Ce sentiment, combiné à l’utilisation répandue de la technologie, pourrait expliquer en partie pourquoi les adolescents passent près de cinq heures par jour sur leur téléphone.

Un lien est parfois établi entre les changements relatifs à la santé mentale chez les jeunes et l’utilisation des téléphones intelligents, mais il n’est pas clair si le temps passé devant un écran ou les types d’activités sur ce genre d’appareils sont les principaux coupables. Néanmoins, plus on découvre les effets de l’exposition aux écrans, plus on prend de mesures pour gérer cette exposition.

Gestion du temps passé devant les écrans

Jean Twenge, une professeure en psychologie interrogée pour l’émission, suggère aux parents des outils de suivi de l’utilisation des applications compatibles avec les systèmes Android et Apple. Sur notre page de ressources Actif pour la vie, nous proposons également des idées aux parents pour les inciter à bouger en famille.

En attendant d’avoir les résultats de l’étude dans dix ans, pourquoi ne pas trouver dès maintenant des moyens de vous « déconnecter »?

COOPER, A. The groundbreaking study examines effects of screen time on kids, 9 décembre 2018. Sur Internet : <https://www.cbsnews.com/news/groundbreaking-study-examines-effects-of-screen-time-on-kids-60-minutes>.

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class="gfield_required"><span class="gfield_required gfield_required_asterisk">*</span></span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_date'> <input name='input_1' id='input_10_1' type='text' value='' class='datepicker mdy datepicker_no_icon gdatepicker-no-icon' placeholder='mm/jj/aaaa' aria-describedby="input_10_1_date_format" aria-invalid="false" aria-required="true"/> <span id='input_10_1_date_format' class='screen-reader-text'>MM slash JJ slash AAAA</span> </div> <input type='hidden' id='gforms_calendar_icon_input_10_1' class='gform_hidden' value='https://activeforlife.com/content/plugins/gravityforms/images/datepicker/datepicker.svg'/></div><div id="field_10_13" class="gfield gfield--width-full gfield_html gfield_html_formatted gfield_no_follows_desc field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible" ><p>Only one kid per email address.</p> <p>Active Start is for children 4 and younger.</p></div><div id="field_10_4" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_4' >Age When Submitted</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_4' id='input_10_4' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_5" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_5' >1st Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_10_5' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_6" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_6' >2nd Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_6' id='input_10_6' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_7" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_7' >3rd Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_7' id='input_10_7' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_8" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_8' >4th Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_8' id='input_10_8' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_10_9" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_hidden" ><div class='admin-hidden-markup'><i class='gform-icon gform-icon--hidden'></i><span>Hidden</span></div><label class='gfield_label' for='input_10_9' >5th Birthday</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_9' id='input_10_9' type='text' value='' class='medium' aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div></div></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_10' class='gform_button button' value='Submit' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_10"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_10"]=true; ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_10"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_10"]=true; 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